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紫金铜业白银供应链风险减缓策略

发布时间:2024-01-15 | 浏览:359

白银供应链风险减缓策略

Risk Mitigation Strategy for Silver Supply Chain 

 

在现代企业的发展中,供应链发挥着越来越大的作用,同时供应链风险也愈加严重。紫金铜业有限公司从供应链风险的防范措施、风险减缓策略两个方面做了相应措施。

In the development of modern enterprises, supply chain plays an increasingly important role. Meanwhile, the risks of supply chain are also growing. Zijin Copper Co., Ltd. takes corresponding measures in respect of supply chain risk prevention and supply chain risk mitigation

一、供应链风险减缓策略的目的

1.Purpose of Supply Chain Risk Mitigation Strategy

紫金铜业有限公司供应链风险管理则旨在识别潜在的风险并采取适当的行动以规避或消除风险。

The supply chain risk management of Zijin Copper Co., Ltd. aims to identify potential risks and take appropriate actions to avoid or eliminate risks.

二、供应链风险的分类和特点

2. Classification and Characteristic of Supply Chain Risk

按照风险来源,供应链风险一般可分为三种,即供应链外部风险、供应链内部风险和企业间的合作风险。供应链外部风险是指因外部客观环境的变化给企业带来受损的风险和可能性,通常由短期内不为企业所控制的变量构成;供应链内部风险主要来自组成供应链系统各环节之间的关系,由各环节之间潜在的互动博弈与合作造成;企业间的合作风险主要指关联的合作企业间产生的风险。

According to the source of risks, supply chain risks can be generally divided into three types: the external risks, the internal risks, and cooperation risks between enterprises. The external risks of supply chain refer to the risks and possibilities of damage to the enterprise due to the change of external objective environment, which are usually composed of variables that are not controlled by the enterprise in short term. The internal risks of supply chain mainly come from the relationship between various links of supply chain system, which are caused by the potential reciprocal game and cooperation in various links. The cooperation risks between enterprises mainly refer to the risks between associated cooperative enterprises.

1)客观性与必然性

(1) Objectivity and Inevitability

自然灾害是不以人们的主观意志为转移的客观存在,决定了供应链风险的产生具有客观性。供应链环节中的企业彼此存在潜在利益冲突和信息不对称。在这种不稳定的系统内,各节点企业是通过不完全契约方式来实现企业之间的协调,因而供应链必然存在风险性。

Natural disaster is an objective existence that is independent of people's subjective will, and it determines the objectivity of supply chain risk. There are potential conflicts of interests and information asymmetry between enterprises in supply chain. In this kind of unstable system, each node enterprise realizes the coordination among enterprises through incomplete contracts. Accordingly, the supply chain risks are inevitably exist.

2)偶然性和不确定性

(2) Contingency and Uncertainty

虽然供应链风险具有客观性和必然性,但是我们并不知道它什么时候发生,在哪发生,这种风险带来的损失是不确定的,所引起的损失往往是以偶然和不确定的形式呈现在人们面前的。供应链风险是作为一种具有发生和不发生两种可能的随机现象而存在的。

In spite of the objectivity and inevitability of supply chain risks, we do not know when and where it occurs. The loss caused by the risks, which is often presented in the form of incidental and inconclusive, is uncertain. Supply chain risks exist as random phenomena with possibilities of occurrence and non-occurrence.

3)多样性与复杂性

(3) Diversity and Complexity

供应链从诞生之日起就面对许多风险,它要面对普通单个企业所要面对的系统风险与非系统风险、财务资产风险、人力资产风险、危害性风险与财务性风险、技术与信息资源传递风险等。同时还有企业间的合作风险,技术与信息资源传递的风险,合作利润在不同企业间的分配风险,市场风险等。这些风险是复杂的,而且是很难预测的。

Since its birth, supply chain has faced many risks which an ordinary individual enterprise has to experience, such as system risk and non-system risk, financial asset risk, human asset risk, hazardous risk, financial risk, and technology and information resource transfer risk, etc. At the same time, there are cooperation risks among enterprises, transfer risks of technology and information resources, distribution risks of cooperation profits among different enterprises, market risks and so on. These risks are complex and hard to predict.

4)传递性与放大性

(4) Transmissibility and Expandability

由于供应链从产品开发、生产到流通过程是由多个节点企业共同参与,因而风险因素可以通过供应链流程在各个企业间传递和累积。供应链上的一个企业出现问题,会影响其他企业的运转,比如说,供应商供应出现了问题就会影响到生产商,销售商等等。这是由于供应链作为一个系统而产生的特点。

Since the process of supply chain from product development, production to circulation is jointly participated by multiple enterprises, risk factors can be transferred and accumulated among enterprises through the supply chain. One problem occurred in an enterprise in the chain will affect the operation of other enterprises. For example, the problem of a supplier will affect the manufacturer and seller, etc. This is a characteristic of the supply chain as a system.

三、风险防范措施

3. Risk Prevention Measures

1)加强信息交流与共享

1Strengthen Information Exchanging and Sharing

提高信息沟通效率,信息技术的应用增加了信息技术间的通信能力。供应链企业之间通过建立多种信息沟通的渠道,加大信息共享,比如共享库存、订单、生产计划等,尽力消除“牛鞭效应”等不真实的信息的传递,从而降低不确定性,降低风险。

To improve the efficiency of information exchange. The application of information technology increases the communication ability between them. Through the establishment of a variety of information exchange channels between supply chain enterprises, they increase information sharing, such as the sharing of inventory, orders, production plans, etc., and try to eliminate the inauthentic information transmission such as the bullwhip effect, so as to reduce uncertainties and risks.

2)设立多供应商、多供应渠道的多头供应链体系

(2) Set up Multi-Supply Chain System with Multi–Supplier and Multi-Supply Channel

为确保原料的稳定供应, 供应链上应该发展多个供应商。除了设立多供应商外, 还设立多供应渠道, 它包括多种付款方式、物流方式和采购模式。设立多头供应链体系是解决供应链瓶颈、预防供应链风险的重要举措, 保证了原料的稳定供给。

To ensure a stable supply of raw materials, multiple suppliers are supposed to be developed in supply chain. In addition to multiple suppliers, it should also set up multiple supply channels, including a variety of payment methods, logistics methods, and procurement models. The establishment of multi-supply chain system is a significant measure to solve the bottleneck and prevent the risk of supply chain, which ensures the stable supply of raw materials.

3)对供应商进行跟踪评估

(3) Follow up and Evaluate Suppliers

针对供应源质量异常风险, 需要建立供应商跟踪评估。对重要供应商经营的情况和存在问题进行分析, 对其质量控制、成本控制、技术开发、信用等方面做及时的调查, 并进行科学的评估。

In terms of the risks of abnormal quality of supply source, it is necessary to establish a supplier follow-up assessment system to analyze the operation situation and existing problems of premier suppliers, as well as conduct timely investigation on their quality control, cost control, technology development, credit, etc. for scientific evaluation.

4采用先进的信息技术

(4) Adopt Advanced Information Technology

企业在生产经营过程中, 可通过使用微信、QQ、邮件 Internet等方式来实现供应链的互联, 实现信息的共享, 加快信息的反馈, 减少信息的流通环节, 建立成熟的信息传递渠道, 确保供应链所要求的数据信息完整、可靠和安全。在物流过程中, 充分利用现代物流管理技术, 例如全球定位系统、地理信息系统等, 以防供应链的物流风险。

In the process of production and operation, enterprises can use WeChat, QQ, email, Internet, and other ways to interconnect the supply chain, which can realize the sharing of information, speed up the feedback of information, reduce the circulation links of information, establish a mature information transmission channel, and ensure the integrity, reliability, and security of the data information required by the supply chain. In the process of logistics, enterprises are supposed to make full use of modern logistics management technology, such as global positioning system, geographic information system, etc., in order to prevent the logistics risks of supply chain.

5制定发生供应链风险的应急措施

(5)Formulate Emergency Measures for Supply Chain Risks

供应链是多环节、多通道的一种复杂的系统, 往往难以避免发生一些风险事件, 所以, 供应链企业要对风险的发生有充分的准备, 提早制定应变措施, 以便能在风险无法避免的情况下, 将损失控制在企业能接受的范围之内。

Supply chain is a complex system with multi-links and multi-channels. It is often difficult to avoid some risk events. Therefore, supply chain enterprises should be fully prepared for the occurrence of risks and formulate contingency measures in advance, so as to control the losses within the acceptable range of the enterprises in case of unavoidable risks.

四、供应链风险处理

4. Supply Chain Risk Management

供应链中的风险处理方式分为三种一为自留二为转移三为转移和自留结合。

There are three ways to deal with risks in the supply chain: self-retention, transfer, and the combination of transfer and self-retention.

1自留时采取的控制措施

(1) Control Measures in Self-Retention

a 改进结构

aImprove the structure

发展多种供应渠道、多地域供应渠道,加强对供应商的跟踪评估。实行企业供应链组织流程重组,使整个供应链可以快速响应市场。

To develop a variety of supply channels, multi-regional supply channels, as well as strengthen the follow up and evaluation for suppliers. To implement the reorganization of organization process of enterprise in supply chain, the supply chain can respond to the market quickly.

b 加强核心企业对风险的控制能力

bStrengthen core enterprises' ability to control risks

核心企业的领导作用有利于在整个供应链上保持强大的改进压力,从而提高了供应链的协同性和运作效率。

The leadership role of the core enterprise is conducive to maintaining strong pressure to improve the whole supply chain, thus to improve the coordination and operation efficiency.

c 降低契约诚信和信息因素带来的风险

cReduce the risks caused by contractual integrity and information factors

供应链企业间出现的道德风险,主要通过尽可能消除信息不对称性来防范;利用现代化的通讯和信息手段管理并优化整个供应链体系,通过实现信息共享,使供应链企业之间实现无缝连接。

The moral hazard among supply chain enterprises can mainly be prevented by eliminating information asymmetry as far as possible; by using modern communication and information approaches to manage and optimize the entire supply chain system, supply chain enterprises can achieve seamless connection through the realization of information sharing.

d 降低合作伙伴风险

dReduce cooperation partner risks

对重要供应商经营的情况和存在问题进行分析一旦发现某重要供应商可能出现问题应及时通知对方进行预防和改进必要时要对有关供应商进行调整。  

The operation situation and existing problems of premier suppliers is analyzed. Once a premier supplier is found to have possible problems, the enterprise shall inform it to prevent and improve in time, as well as make adjustments to relevant suppliers if necessary.

e 制定发生供应链风险的应急措施

eFormulate emergency measures

f 强化风险的日常管理

f Strengthen daily management

2)转移方式

2Transfer Method

供应链风险转移是将供应链中可能发生风险的一部分转移出去的风险防范方式,风险转移可分为保险转移。以合同形式将自然灾害、意外事故可能造成的损失、人身伤亡及对他人的经济赔偿责任造成的经济损失转移给保险公司。

Supply chain risk transfer is a risk prevention method to transfer the part with possible risks in the supply chain. Risk transfer can be divided into insurance transfer. In the form of a contract, the economic loss caused by natural disasters, accidents, personal casualties, and economic compensation liability for others are transferred to the insurance company.

五、结语

5. Conclusion

由于供应链风险是由多种因素引起的,外部和内部环境的复杂性都会给供应链风险识别带来困难。随着信息技术的不断进步和市场竞争加剧,供应链管理已经成为企业获得竞争优势的关键因素之一,随着供应链层数的增加,供应链的成员企业越来越多,供应链的结构日趋复杂,而供应链的复杂性导致供应链产生风险。要实现供应链高效安全地运作,就必须针对供应链内外潜在风险,实施恰当的战略和行动来减少或化解风险。

For the reason that supply chain risks are caused by many factors, the complexity of external and internal environment will bring difficulties to the identification of supply chain risks. With the continuous progress of information technology and the intensification of market competition, supply chain management has become one of the key factors for enterprises to obtain competitive advantages. With the increase of supply chain layers, there are more and more member enterprises joining in the supply chain, and the structure of supply chain is increasingly complex. Meanwhile, the complexity of the supply chain leads to risks in it. In order to realize the efficient and safe operation of supply chain, it is necessary to implement appropriate strategies and actions to reduce or defuse the potential risks inside and outside the supply chain.


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